Penny Sander

Penny Sander

Chapter Regent

2022 - 2024




National Society

California State Society








         The Road to Independence

                  The Stamp Act                                              Submitted by Sue Loucks California America 250! Committee                           

 Why was the Stamp Act considered the start of the revolt of American colonists? The main concerns of early settlers in the American Colonies were generally social freedom, political equality, and local rights. They were interested in local business that planned and laid out roads between local communities and to establish townships to administer local affairs. They were concerned with the “Indian Invasion” and their French supporters. England helped us fight the French and Indian War and Parliament wanted us to help pay the costs of this war. They passed the Stamp Act on March 22, 1765. This meant that all legal documents in both England and America had to be written on paper with a particular stamp. The cost of the stamp depended on the importance of the document. The Stamp Act was so unpopular in both England and the Colonies that Parliament repealed it Feb. 22, 1766. Everyone was happy except Parliament, who immediately passed the Declaratory Act, which asserted its power over the Colonies in “all cases whatsoever.” In 1767 Parliament passed an act imposing duties on tea, glass, and painters’ colors (all imported). Citizens gathered, formed associations, and wrote resolutions of protest. These resolutions were forwarded to the King who dropped some of the taxes. Advisors to the King suggested that reducing these taxes would restore tranquility. Did it restore tranquility? No! Remember Parliament just said it, and the King had total control of deciding the rules over the Colonies. The colonists refused to pay even the small tax on tea (3 pence/lb.) Because of this refusal, tea shipped to New York and Pennsylvania was returned immediately to England. Tea bound for Charleston was unloaded but stored in damp cellars, which ruined it. And what happened to the shipment of tea to Boston? It ended up in the harbor, dumped there by colonists dressed as Indians. The colonists were rebelling and were starting to unite for independence! Burning of Stamp Act, Boston. Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division


Thomas Paine and Common Sense 

         Submitted by Sue Loucks California America 250! Committee         

Thomas Paine is listed as an important figure as the American colonies traveled the road to independence, but who is he and what did he do? He grew up in England. He was totally unsuccessful in a number of jobs until he immigrated from England to Philadelphia in 1774. In Philadelphia Thomas joined with Robert Aitkin to found the “Pennsylvania Magazine.” Thomas edited this magazine for 18 months, during which he published several articles including one denouncing, the “African Slave Trade in America.” On January 10, 1776, he published his most famous “article,” a 50-page pamphlet entitled “Common Sense.” This was published after the Battles of Lexington and Concord. In simple, ordinary language Paine argued that the American cause should not be just a revolt against taxation; the American colonies should demand independence. Government should serve the people. The colonies were founded as “the home of the free,” and Paine went on to explain the advantages of and need for immediate independence. This rebellion was “common sense.” The Revolution was a rare opportunity to create a new nation based on self-rule. “Common Sense” became instantly popular and shortly led to the unanimous signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

                      French and Indian War 

          Submitted by Sue Loucks California America 250! Committee

France and Britain had been fighting off and on for decades. Here in North America, their fight was about who controlled the vast “empty” territory on this continent. They fought over fishing rights off Newfoundland (the Grand Banks), fertile farming land in the Ohio Valley, and control of the fur trade. The French from the Quebec area concentrated on alliances with the Native Americans through sending out Catholic missionaries, building defensive forts, and trading with the Natives. Often these fur traders lived among the Natives and had Indian wives. The British colonists, from Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York wanted to establish new settlements and farm the land. The French established alliances with the Natives as they moved down the St. Lawrence to the Great Lakes and on to the Mississippi Valley. The French with their allies seemed to be always trying to push the British colonists back away from their new settlements. Between 1754 and 1763 there were many battles in the Ohio Valley area, and in the early years the French seemed to be winning. However the British Royal Navy had a couple of major battles in Europe 1759 which effectively wiped out the French Navy. This meant the French could not send troops or ammunition to their colonists. This led to the Treaty of Paris in 1763 between Britain, France, and Spain, which had helped Britain late in the war.

File:...Twenty Brave Men.jpg - WikipediaIn the Treaty of Paris, France ceded Canada to Britain and the Louisiana territory, including New Orleans,

to Spain. Spain gave up its claim to Florida. Shortly after the Treaty, King George issued a Proclamation against settling west of the crest of the Appalachian mountain range.

However, the British colonists in 13 colonies were not thrilled with the treaty. They did not want to continue their dependence on Britain, and Parliament wanted them to start paying for the defense of the “newly acquired” territory. The rumblings of Independence were surfacing.



Spain’s Contribution to the Americas’ Independence

Submitted by Sue Loucks California America 250! Committee

Spain was long standing rival of England for land in the Americas and dominance at sea. This European fight led to Spain aiding the American Revolution in many ways. Spain did not openly support the American cause, as they did not want any of their colonies to get ideas of independence. They did, however, secretly furnish badly needed supplies including arms, munitions, blankets and clothes, which were directly sent to the American armies in Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Eventually Spain provided direct military assistance from Bernardo de Galvez. (pictured left) King Carlos III also allowed ships, which were harassing British boats, to freely dock at the Spanish ports along the Mississippi. This support meant that the war front was now expanded to the Caribbean, the Mississippi River area and the Spanish colonies of Florida and Louisiana Spain sent large sums of money in support of Thirteen Colonies as they struggled for independence. The inhabitants of the Spanish territory contributed money through

King Carlos III Donativos or voluntary tax which was collected and then sent to Washington to help pay for the war. This tax was also collected from the Native American Pueblo residents.

While the colonies on the East coast of the American Continent were starting to petition for independence, what was happening on the Midwest and the West coast? The Spanish had established the cities of Santa Fe and Tubac and several defensive forts, as they explored the lands north of what we know as Mexico. In 1775-6 Juan Bautista de Anza set out from the Tubac Presidio to establish a land route to Alta California. Outposts in this area would protect Alta California from intrusion from Russian and English settlers. De Anza took a large group of men women and 1000 head of livestock to colonize the San Francisco area. Their expedition took about five and a half months.

 Boston Tea Party – 16 December 1773 - 250 years ago Submitted by Sue Loucks California America 250! Committee

The Boston Tea Party is an appropriate event to launch theChestertown Tea Party - Wikipedia CSSDAR’s celebration of the 250th anniversary of the American Revolution. No, this event did not start the Revolution, but it was a pivotal event as the Patriots built up to the movement to declare their independence from England. The cost of defending the American Colonies during the French and Indian War had drained the English government. Parliament felt that the American colonists should help pay for the cost of the war to protect their homes and businesses. Parliament imposed several taxes to pay for this cost: the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and taxes on imports and exports. One of the items taxed was tea imported by the East India Company. Many of the American colonists protested “Taxation without Representation,'' led by the Sons of Liberty, by not buying English imported tea. Because of the protests, most of the taxes, except the tax on tea, were repealed in 1770. Many colonists boycotted tea imported from England and instead bought tea smuggled in from Holland. Four ships arrived in Boston harbor in November of 1773, and the colonists allowed them to unload all cargo except the tea. The rebel colonists wanted the tea and ships returned to England. When ships came into the American harbors, the merchants had 20 days to pay an import duty. Governor Hutchison refused to allow the ships to leave until the duty was paid. Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty met on the evening of the 20th day, 16 December 1773, and organized a raiding party dressed as Mohawk Indians to board the ships and dump all 342 chests of tea into the harbor. There were between 30 and 130 men who took part in the Tea Party, but their identities were kept a secret until around the 1830s when one member sat down and listed the names of the people he could remember taking part in the Tea Party. Needless to say, Parliament was not happy with Boston. They passed the Conciliatory Resolution or Intolerable Acts. These acts shut down Boston harbor until the tea was paid for, sent troops into Boston, and rewrote the colonial charter for the Massachusetts Colony.


                                   Townsend Acts                                  Submitted by Sue Loucks - California America 250! Committee 

What are they and how did they lead to the American Revolution? The Townshend Acts were a series of taxes and regulations passed by the British Parliament in 1767-8. They were to fund the costs of administering the British Colonies in America and pay the costs of the French and Indian War. Goods being imported to the colonists were taxed. Ben Franklin told Parliament that the colonists intended to produce their own goods rather than pay the taxes. Parliament chose to tax items that would be difficult for the colonists to manufacture: china, glass, lead, paper, and tea. As a result of these taxes, the Sons of Liberty were formed and 24 towns in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island agreed in January 1768 to boycott imported British goods for one year. By 1779 Britain sent 2000 troops to Boston to quell the unrest (Boston’s population was only 16,000). There continued to be frequent skirmishes between the colonists and the soldiers. Tensions boiled over in March 1770 when soldiers shot into an angry crowd - the Boston Massacre. On the same day as the Boston Massacre, the British Prime Minister asked Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts to reduce the tension. In April 1770 all the Townshend Acts were repealed except the tax on tea. In 1773 this tax led to the Boston Tea Party.


2023 Good Citizens Award Winners

from Laguna Hills High School, Tesoro High School, Santa Margarita Catholic High School, Mission Viejo High School, and El Toro High School





Every year, the Mission Viejo Chapter, NSDAR, awards the Anne Lampman Memorial Scholarship to a Saddleback College student who excels in studies toward a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related Associate Transfer Degree.